The Next Great Media Channel Is the Self-Driving Car. Will Brands Be Ready?

The average driver spends 48 minutes behind the wheel

GM has increased production of self-driving Chevy Bolts. Volvo is partnering with self-driving car chipmaker Nvidia. Volkswagen is working to power its cars with A.I.

The conversation has fully shifted from “if” driverless cars will become the new normal to “when.” While the general public is eager for improved productivity, better safety and hopes for reduced traffic, marketers should be looking at the autonomous vehicle from a different angle: as the next great media channel.

As technology continues its advance, the car will become a hot spot for interaction, entertainment and information. It will also be a treasure trove of data.

While the exact time frame is hard to predict, the advent of 5G–with 100 times the data transfer speeds of 4G, plus better connectivity between devices and internet-enabled objects—will unlock huge opportunity for both the auto industry and marketers who could exploit the new media experiences.

This opportunity will open up in two ways: first, as a precision marketing tool, using all the data the car will soon produce; secondly, as mass-reaching vehicle (pardon the pun), as self-driving cars become mini entertainment centres.

In the near future, autonomous cars will process staggering amounts of data: current and past destinations, speed of travel, demographics and biometrics of the riders, present and future weather, traffic conditions, and nearby landmarks and commercial locations—all of which marketers could access to achieve an unprecedented level of precision in consumer messaging.

Let’s consider what might soon be possible from a marketing perspective in this new channel for say, a coffee chain.

A passenger in a smart car passes a chain coffee shop on the way to work every morning. They have the coffee brand’s app. When they’re close, we programmatically target the rider, asking if they’d like to stop to pick up a medium soy latte—their preferred order at this time of day. If the rider says yes, their car is directed to the store, where their coffee is ready to be picked up at the counter, since payment has already been processed through the app.

In this example, you can see the confluence of benefits: Time of day meets exact location meets buyer-behaviour meets real-time messaging.

On the other side of our consumer’s day, recognizing the route and time stamp from work to home, a supermarket could serve up cooking content and then share an offer on ingredients. Or if passenger biometric data recognizes that the passenger is generally too hungry to wait, he or she could be served with ads and offers for nearby restaurants. Still on the way home but moving out of the food category, a network, premium channel or streaming service marketer could serve tune-in messages for that evening based on the driver’s historical preferences.

The opportunity doesn’t only lie within in-car targeting. Consider also that a car that drives itself gives users, who used to be drivers, time back in their day (an average of 48 minutes per day according to AAA). More time means more chance to consume ad-funded or branded content, turning the car into another “opportunity to see,” either on mobile or in-car screens.

That means those tune-in messages on the drive home can actually be trailers and behind-the-scenes extras. On the weekends, travel brands could leverage past purchase data to predict preferred vacation times and locations to send targeted destination content ideally timed to when the consumer is in consideration mode, and more receptive to leisure-oriented messages.

Car companies will need to decide what role they wish to play as the producer of this new media “device.” Will they follow the model the video game consoles have already hewn, licensing their tech to various content providers while fighting for valuable exclusive titles? How much control can and should they exert over the “pipes” of their cars?

Regardless of where those chips fall, they will be in the position to collect an amazing amount of data from the cars and those who ride in them. In a category in which the traditional ownership and profitability dynamics are shifting, licensing APIs and selling data will become an increasingly bigger aspect of how car brands make money.

Source:; 31 Oct 2017

How to deliver personalised messages at scale

Procter & Gamble says it will seek to strike a balance between personalisation and mass targeting by not compromising on its brands’ purpose.

Procter & Gamble (P&G) is pivoting its digital marketing to deliver more personalised messages on a mass scale. To lead this transformation, it is also looking to champion an increasingly diverse set of marketing skills.

The consumer goods giant, which claims to reach five billion consumers every day, has set its sights on building brands digitally that “meet and exceed consumer expectations”. It looks to do this by using ‘big data’ to determine what people really want, according to Sophie Blum, P&G’s vice-president of marketing for Europe and IMEA (India, the Middle East and Africa), speaking at the Festival of Marketing last week.

“This depth and intimacy of understanding every single consumer is very new. That is what’s transforming the profession. You either get overwhelmed, or you embrace it with tools to be able to interact with and answer [consumers] in a way that is better than your competitors,” she tells Marketing Week.

What follows this focus on big data is mass one-on-one marketing – something the company’s chief brand officer Marc Pritchard briefly referenced in a speech at Dmexco last month.

One example is Pampers. The moment mums-to-be start searching for pregnancy-related information on Google, P&G gets a signal that someone is starting their “journey” and will target them accordingly. During a woman’s third trimester of pregnancy, for example, it might offer advice on what to put into nappy bags, or once the baby is born it will show consumers different nappies to buy as the baby grows.

“At P&G we have this ongoing understanding of one-to-one [messaging]. It’s a day-to-day journey. We are there to accompany consumers by having the right message at the right time,” she says.

When asked how P&G ensures it gets the right balance between personalisation and mass messaging, Blum says staying true to a brand’s purpose is key – and points to feminine hygiene brand Always.

“Always is about female empowerment, no matter what age you are. What will change are consumer expectations. I have different expectations of Always compared to my 14-year-old daughter. The moment I’m in touch with Always, the product [on show] is going to be different. But there are things we don’t compromise on; the brand is the brand,” she says.

P&G has also had a focus on cleaning up the “murky” digital ecosystem after Pritchard’s now seminal speech in January. But when asked if these issues impact the company’s ability to use digital as a brand building tool, Blum instantly refutes this.

“No – it just forces us to be extremely rigorous and disciplined in what we do and how we measure things. We are serving our consumers, it’s not about the channels or tools that are transforming. For us it’s important [to focus] on the way we go about it,” she explains.

The marketing team of the future

Overhauling the company’s culture to become more digitally-focused hasn’t been easy, however. Blum claims one of the biggest challenges has been to create “talent for tomorrow”, where marketing leaders are expected to be able to work across multiple disciplines, understand mathematics and algorithms, while also being able to empathise with people.

“You have a base and then a unique human understanding of what is behind data that is telling the consumer story. You need both the human and tech-savvy side. That’s the new level of recruitment, and a whole new ballgame of leadership,” she says.

As a result, Blum’s plea to young people in the profession is to adopt a diverse set of skills, and to think of brands as a “force of good and growth”.

She concludes: “That’s the role of big brands. The weight on the shoulders of marketers today has never been so heavy; not only to change behaviours and change the conversation, but to be a force for good.”

Source:; 10 Oct 2017

‘Arrogance’ around brand purpose making consumers distrust ads

Almost 70% of consumers don’t trust advertising and 42% distrust brands, seeing them as part of the establishment and therefore ‘remote, unreachable, abstract and self-serving’, according to a new study.

Consumers are increasingly cynical of brands and advertising, with ‘big business’ scandals and “arrogance” around brand purpose to blame, according to a study by Trinity Mirror.

The research, done in collaboration with Ipsos Connect, looked at consumers’ trust in advertising. It was done using a three-stage methodology, including a week-long in depth “online community”, three-hour workshops and face-to-face interviews with 1,000 people.

The results are not good news for advertisers; the study concludes consumers trust “almost nothing”. While almost half of consumers (42%) distrust brands, 69% distrust advertising.

Meanwhile, 37% of consumers trust brands less than they used to compared to only 7% who trust brands more than they used to. Some 43% of respondents trust advertising less than they used to, compared to only 8% who trust it more than before.

A big part of the problem, according to Trinity Mirror, is the “arrogance” of brands adopting an ill-fitting purpose, leading to increased cynicism among consumers. The research says 58% of adults don’t trust a brand until they have seen ‘real world proof’ that it has kept its promises.

“There can be huge exaggeration around purpose for some brands, to the point it is incredibly far-fetched,” Zoe Harris, group marketing director at Trinity Mirror, tells Marketing Week.

“It started off with a few brands having a genuine purpose, but it’s now gone to such an extent where it’s a one-off ad campaign or we see it on the side of packaging. It’s ridiculous.”

Harris adds brands are now often seen as part of ‘the establishment’ or “part of a small elite”. The research shows that the establishment is generally considered to be “remote, unreachable, abstract and self-serving”.

Headlines around bad behaviour such as tax evasion have also negatively affected perceptions of the ad industry, making consumers believe that advertising “only serves big business” with an expectation to “lie and manipulate to make profit”.

“The fact brands are seen as part of the establishment definitely surprised us. This impacts us all, whether you’re guilty of [bad behaviour] or not,” she added. “Brands have underlying consumer cynicism as a starting point. And if brands haven’t lived up to that purpose, then we all get lumped together and tarred with the same brush.”

Bad digital behaviour

Digital is also to blame for the decline in trust. Due to the relative newness of the advertising channel, brands have fallen into “budget brand” behaviours that they wouldn’t implement on other more traditional channels such as aggressive retargeting. Some 40% of consumers associate brands with being ‘pushy’ and 57% of adults agree that brands should be more careful where they place their advertising.

This is backed up by other research, which found that social media is the least trusted media channel, with 63% of consumers claiming they would respond more positively to a social media ad if it appeared on a more traditional advertising channel.

So how can advertisers help build trust? Harris believes it’s about brands demonstrating that they “really believe” in what they say they stand for.

She concludes: “It’s important to remember that we’re all lumped together and seen as out of touch, which is why brands need to think about how they can connect with people in their day to day lives and whether their proof points are actually resonating. Is your message actually getting across?”

Source:; 29 Jun 2017

Stereotypical TV ads ‘causing resentment’ among consumers

TV advertising still relies too heavily on outdated stereotypes, new research suggests.

TV ad stereotyping

Brands are still out of touch with consumers when it comes to portraying gender in TV advertising and it’s causing resentment among men and women, according to a new study.

These attitudes are unveiled as part of the latest Prosumer Study, “The Future Is FeMale”, which seeks to analyse how far gender equality has come. The study surveyed more than 12,000 men and women in 32 countries.

In the UK, almost half (41.5%) of women surveyed said they begrudge how women are represented in advertising, compared to less than a third (31.7%) feeling the same about the portrayal of men. Only 27% of people said they resent the way men are depicted in ads, with 29.6% of men agreeing compared with 24.8% of women.

Meanwhile, almost half of all those surveyed in the UK said they felt TV ads show too many outdated stereotypes (47.8%) with women agreeing more strongly than men (50% versus 45.2%).

Perhaps unsurprisingly, almost all women (93%) do not enjoy watching ads showing semi-naked women while more than half of men do not enjoy seeing their own gender de-robed in ads.

The overall findings of the study, the study claims, point towards an “a-gendered future”, with almost half of respondents believing that there is no single gender with almost half of men and nearly two thirds of women believing children should be raised in a gender neutral way.

The news comes in light of the Advertising Standards Authority revealing it is cracking down on gender stereotyping in ads, after an internal report found advertising affects people’s expectations of how others should “look or behave” according to their gender.

“[The research] demonstrates that gender inequality is an issue for society at large, and that stereotyping can play a role reinforcing this. Advertising is not the only influence but does play a role, and it’s right that we identify where there’s a potential for harm,” the report’s lead author Ella Smillie told Marketing Week at the time.

Source:; 18 Sep 2017

Consumers Have More Time Thanks to Technology, and Marketers Have More Opportunities to Fill It

Trends like ride sharing and IoT have seemed to lengthen the day

The day is now apparently 30 percent longer than it used to be.

Recently, I was taking an Uber while speaking to a colleague on the phone and simultaneously switching between Instagram, news headlines and texting a partner in Singapore on WhatsApp. Ten years ago, these activities did not and could not coexist; today, I can do them all simultaneously.

Most individuals love to think that time is scarce. There are only 24 hours in a day, right? Well, maybe not.

In Activate’s Tech and Media Outlook 2016, there is an interesting statistic derived from data at the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Nielsen and other leading sources suggesting that the average U.S. employed adult’s daily activity is equivalent to 31 hours and 28 minutes. In other words, the day is now apparently 30 percent longer than it used to be—and this will only continue to increase with the rapidly advancing trends of Internet of Things, the normalization of the “sharing economy,” autonomous vehicles, wearables, automation and artificial intelligence.

Time is a fascinating component of humanity: It must be used every day and is a resource one cannot hoard. But what if you challenged the notion that time is actually finite and scarce and instead began to look at the potential for its emerging abundance due to these trends? The winners in this scenario will be those marketers who can fill this new time—these new opportunities—in meaningful ways. More time does not equal less busy.

In 1955, Cyril Parkinson wrote an essay in which he stated, “Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion.” This notion, which is known as Parkinson’s Law, is simple human nature. The same can be said about how we live our lives outside of work as well.

Mobile devices are the easiest way to grasp the notion of maximizing time as they provide a more frictionless way to read more books, to listen to more music, to send more emails, and to speak to more friends during moments that were previously not as convenient. Similarly, the rise in autonomous and shared vehicles provides consumers with time to enjoy more of what they want while giving smart brands and marketers opportunities to engage more deeply with them. For example, to Google, these self-driving vehicles are merely an accessory to one’s mobile device and enable more searches.

But what about other industries that may not be so obvious? In August 2016, Morgan Stanley published a piece of research titled Shared Autonomous Mobility: Potential Growth Opportunity for Beverage and Restaurant Firms.

Recognizing the serious social, public health and safety implications of such a study, Morgan Stanley noted that the introduction of ride-sharing services has also coincided with the reduction of DUI arrests in certain cities in the U.S. San Diego, for example, a city with one of the highest DUIs per capita, saw a 14 percent decrease in arrests between 2011 and 2013 when Uber began its operations. Conversely, the study also points out that when the city of Austin, Texas, temporarily banned Uber, there was a reduction in alcohol sales.

From a consumer and public safety perspective, the implications of the sharing economy in this instance are immense. And the impact for brands and marketers in it is real as well.

At the time of this study, the total global alcohol market was roughly $1.5 trillion. It was calculated that the incremental growth opportunities presented from shared mobility increased the total addressable marketplace by over $31 billion in 10 years based on a +1 increase in drink consumption per month. This is immense growth for a change in behaviour that would otherwise be barely noticeable.

But this does not only occur in the sharing economy. Advances in IoT, wearables, automation and AI will all continue to increase the ease of multitasking for consumers—while the world will continue to recalibrate to these new norms with the perception that nothing feels different and everyone continues to believe they are stressed for time.

Marketing only succeeds in these extra moments when it can provide increased value or native utility to the consumer’s expectation. In his book The End of Advertising, Andrew Essex articulates this as the need to move away from producing “the thing that interrupts the thing.”

This is why Taco Bell’s Cinco de Mayo lens on Snapchat was viewed 224 million times in one day last year; why consumers have such an affinity toward Citi Bike in New York City; or why SSGA’s Fearless Girl has had over 2.3 billion social media impressions.

“Time is money” is an adage that Benjamin Franklin is credited with saying, and, in an era of time abundance, the marketers who navigate this moment properly will be the true winners.

Keith Grossman is the global CRO at Bloomberg Media and has been part of two teams that have previously won Adweek Project Isaac Awards.

Source:; 11 Sep 2017

State Farm Is Targeting Location-Based Ads at Gas Stations

18,000 locations are getting equipped with digital screens

If you regularly fill your tank at a gas station, chances are you’ve spent a few minutes standing idly by your car. Now, advertisers want to serve you ads while you wait.

State Farm is running video ads on digital screens built into the pumps at 18,000 national gas stations as part of a partnership between Gas Station TV and payment company Verifone. The screens loop through a four- to five-minute segment featuring content from ESPN, CNN and Bloomberg that run alongside short national and local commercials from brands like State Farm. Each station’s screens can be customized to pull in either local or national content.

“State Farm has an interest in reaching the driving public,” said Edward Gold, advertising director at State Farm. “While we can do that on television and online video, when you have somebody who is actually driving a car, experiencing their car, taking care of their car and therefore thinking about their car, it’s a great opportunity for us.”

GSTV and Verifone claim their network of digital screens reaches one in three adults and 75 million unique monthly viewers. According to David Leider, president and CEO of Gas Station TV, 69 percent of that audience is between the ages of 18 and 49, a group of cord-cutting consumers who are increasingly watching video in ways other than linear TV. “We like to say that the audience is tied to that screen with a rubber hose for about five minutes—it’s a very captive, locked-down audience,” Leider said.

State Farm bought ads through GSTV in 2015 and ran a study through Lieberman Research in which 48 percent of respondents recalled seeing a State Farm ad, and 69 percent said they’d consider the company the next time they shopped for insurance.

State Farm’s Gold said the new work is part of a bigger plan to beef up the brand’s location-based advertising efforts, which also include piloting sponsored promos in online community platform Nextdoor.

“Local advertising is always something that we do, but then our ability to target people whether we know that they’re in a specific area—let’s say the northern suburb of Chicago—might be a little better market for us than the downtown area of Chicago,” Gold said. “Then when you start looking at location-based advertising opportunities, even from where the cell phone is at, and how we can target someone who has been standing on an auto dealership lot for five minutes, which means they’re either getting their car fixed or they’re shopping for a new car, we’re definitely getting more into very specific location-based opportunities.”

Source:; 19 Apr 2017

How video storytelling and mobile have transformed Shell’s corporate marketing

Shell’s global corporate marketing has shifted entirely from one dominated by traditional media (i.e. TV and print advertising) and brand messages to one dominated by digital media and video-led storytelling.

And the stories it tells are no longer about Shell the company, they’re about the alternative energy start-ups it helps.

Malena Cutuli Group Head of Integrated Brand Communications & Capability at Shell talked to Andy Favell for ClickZ at Mobile World Congress 2017’s Modern Marketing Summit:

“Six years ago, when I joined the company, Shell’s global corporate marketing was 80% traditional communications and now we are doing 85% digital and content creation and 15% traditional. And that is for countries where digital is not easy to find, such as in Africa.”
The Shell corporate marketing team hasn’t run a TV ad for four years, with the exception of in China, where the last TV ad ran two years ago.

That doesn’t mean you won’t see a Shell ad on TV. TV advertising is still used by the retail marketing team (which is separate to Malena Cutuli’s brand communications group), to help sell Shell’s products – but you won’t see TV ads about Shell the company.

Click here for full report

Source:, 20 Mar 2017

Amazon Raises Ad Stakes With Video Advertising

With little fanfare, Amazon Video Ads (AVA) rolled out this week to advertisers working with the Amazon Media Group (AMG).

The new out-stream video advertising product allows advertisers to run an autoplay feature in videos as shoppers browse on the Amazon platform across desktop, tablets and smartphones. The ads are muted by default. With a click, site visitors can choose to view the ads in full-screen mode and listen to them.

Amazon engineers developed the video ads to follow Media Rating Council (MRC) and Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) standards, which means that at least 50% of the advertisement must remain in view for 2 consecutive seconds. The autoplay feature starts only when the ad is in view, and it automatically pauses when the ad goes out of view.

The company reports that based on early tests, the video ad and placement performs best in the first five seconds of play, with the optimal length of the video advertisement at 15 seconds or less. It’s all about driving down the cost of video views across the marketplace.

While Amazon Video Ads are not available today for placement outside of the marketplace, building out a network isn’t beyond the realm of possibilities. The company has been running Google Shopping Ads.

Amazon Video Ads are being offered in a variety of countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan, Germany, and Spain.

The expansion of Amazon’s advertising platform and cloud services through Amazon Web Services (AWS) has helped founder Jeff Bezos and company catch the attention of executives at some of the largest and most successful advertising holding companies, agencies and brands. Making good business decisions has made his pockets a little deeper, enabling the billionaire to expand his empire. In fact, Forbes reports that Bezos added $20 billion to his net worth over 14 months through December 2016 — the largest gain of anyone in the world.

Source:, 10 Mar 2017

Dynamic emails lead to 18pc higher click rates on mobile: report

While standard email campaigns have become stale, kinetic email marketing optimized for mobile devices and with interactive elements can enhance click rates by almost 20 percent, according to a new report from Experian.

The report looked at the difference between static emails and more kinetic, interactive email marketing to gauge how much more effective the latter is than the former. The data found that kinetic emails performed significantly better than static in terms click rates and engagements from consumers.

“Kinetic email opens up a new approach to how we interact with our mobile inbox, and it is starting to show some real results,” said Yara Lutz, senior vice president of client success for Experian Cross-Channel Marketing. “It’s best to roll out simple techniques to start, in order to introduce the experience and continue to build upon it throughout your program.”

Kinetic email

In the modern age, even as consumers are becoming more and more reliant on mobile devices and remaining connected to their digital lives at all times, email marketing has slowly fallen by the wayside compared to social media advertising and native advertising.

Where once email marketing served as one of the best ways to connect with customers on a digital level, it now is often overlooked as a marketing opportunity in favour of other strategies.

Part of this has to do with the static nature of emails. Most emails come in plain text or HTML format, with occasional images and links.

But this is not the only way email marketing has to be. Many brands should be more aware of the possibilities of kinetic email, or email that is more dynamic and interactive.

Some brands have already taken advantage of this strategy, adding interactive elements that play best on mobile devices and mimic app-like behaviour.

Experian took a look at the data behind kinetic email to get a better handle on how much it affects customer engagement.

The data unsurprisingly showed that kinetic email had significantly better returns on engagement than static email.

Kinetic emails had an 18 percent higher click rate and a 10 percent higher open rate than standard email marketing messages.

Additionally, average revenue-per-email increased 8 cents from 6 cents in the previous quarter for brands that began using kinetic emails.

Dynamic and interactive

This strategy of offering kinetic emails with dynamic, interactive content is especially well suited to mobile devices.

While brands have long been able to format emails to look good on mobile, it is only now through kinetic email that they are beginning to take full advantage of what mobile can do for email marketing.

This is important given that 56 percent of total email opens in Q4 of 2016 were on mobile devices.

Some of the brands who have taken full advantage of the powers of kinetic email include Sephora, which used a dynamic email quiz, optimized for use on mobile devices, to recommend products to its customers.

Elsewhere, Vivino saw an increase in app opens thanks to an AI-based email campaign that automatically generated dynamic newsletters.


Vivino saw app opens rise after a kinetic email campaign

These campaigns show the data Experian mined in practice, exemplifying how dynamic and interactive emails optimized for the mobile device can have a positive impact on email marketing.

“Email has been going through an evolution for several years now, as mobile has become a dominant force within the space,” Ms. Lutz said. “We’ve already seen a shift in how marketers approach all types of campaigns and cater to the possibilities that mobile can provide.

“What started with designers optimizing campaigns to be responsive and updating content to be geared toward the mobile open, has advanced into new opportunities where users can interact with their emails mimicking an in-app experience. As devices become smarter, we can only expect the same with email as we tag along for the ride.”

Source:, 14 Mar 2017

Making your marketing organization agile: A step-by-step guide

Everyone wants to be “agile” these days. Here’s how successful companies put together the teams and the capabilities to actually make it happen at scale.

An international bank recently decided it wanted to see how customers would respond to a new email offer. They pulled together a mailing list, cleaned it up, iterated on copy and design, and checked with legal several times to get the needed approvals. Eight weeks later, they were ready to go.

In a world where people decide whether to abandon a web page after three seconds and Quicken Loans gives an answer to online mortgage applicants in less than ten minutes, eight weeks for an email test pushes a company to the boundaries of irrelevance. For many large incumbents, however, such a glacial pace is the norm.

We’ve all heard how digital technology allows marketers to engage in innovative new ways to meet customers’ needs far more effectively. But taking advantage of the new possibilities enabled by digital requires incumbents’ marketing organizations to become much nimbler and have a bias for action. In other words, they have to become agile.

Agile, in the marketing context, means using data and analytics to continuously source promising opportunities or solutions to problems in real time, deploying tests quickly, evaluating the results, and rapidly iterating. At scale, a high-functioning agile marketing organization can run hundreds of campaigns simultaneously and multiple new ideas every week.

The truth is, many marketing organizations think they’re working in an agile way because they’ve adopted some agility principles, such as test and learn or reliance on cross-functional teams. But when you look below the surface, you quickly find they’re only partly agile, and they therefore only reap partial benefits. For example, marketing often doesn’t have the support of the legal department, IT, or finance, so approvals, back-end dependencies, or spend allocations are slow. Or their agency and technology partners aren’t aligned on the need for speed and can’t move quickly enough. Simply put: if you’re not agile all the way, then you’re not agile.

For companies competing in this era of disruption, this is a problem. In many companies, revenues in the segment offerings and product lines that use agile techniques have grown by as much as a factor of four. And even the most digitally savvy marketing organizations, where one typically sees limited room for improvement, have experienced revenue uplift of 20 to 40 percent. Agile also increases speed: marketing organizations that formerly took multiple weeks or even months to get a good idea translated into an offer fielded to customers find that after they adopt agile marketing practices, they can do it in less than two weeks.

Making your marketing organization agile isn’t a simple matter, but we have found a practical and effective way to get there.

Click here for the full article

Source:; Nov 2016