Google updates local search results by user location

Google has updated the trigger with which it determines the location of the user.

Local search results will no longer be determined by the country-specific browser being used by a user. A new update by Google has done away with domain dependency and transitions towards picking the user location as the main factor for serving local search results.

This means that logging into Google.com.my from Singapore will lead to search results pertaining to Singapore.

Google will no longer rely on top-level domains, such as Google.com.sg, as a trigger for determining the location of the user. Country services on the mobile web, the Google app for iOS, desktop search, and Google Maps will now correspond to the location of the user’s device.

The change only impacts users so advertisers needn’t worry about any changes to PPC and SEM campaigns in progress.

According to a blog post, 20% of searches on Google are related to the location according to Evelyn Kao, the product manager at Google. “So providing locally relevant search results is an essential part of serving you the most accurate information,” she adds.

Similar to settings for Google products such as Google Earth, Gmail, and YouTube, users can change the location manually if they choose to.

“While this update will change the way Google Search and Maps services are labelled, it won’t affect the way these products work, nor will it change how we handle obligations under national law,” Kao writes.

The update is meant to rely on a user opting to keep their location tracker on in order to find the most relevant search results, which ties into Google’s dependency on mobile search as evidenced at the quarter three earnings call.

Source: campaignasia.com; 31 Oct 2017

Why Amazon is investing so heavily in voice

All computer interfaces up to today have been unnatural, inhuman and discriminatory, the company’s chief technology officer says.

If you think about it, all computer interfaces have been designed for communication with the computer, not with humans, Amazon’s chief technology officer Werner Vogels said at Web Summit.

These are unnatural and inhuman interfaces, and they are discriminatory, Vogels told the conference in Lisbon Thursday.

“Let’s take the International Rice Research Institute in Manila as an example. They know everything about rice and they work with farmers in the region to improve crop yields. They have built a digital webpage with all this crucial information but no one was using it because the farmers don’t own computers. So, they put a voice interface over it so farmers could call in and describe their patch of land. It has helped greatly improve crop yields,” Vogels said.

People who have bought Amazon Echo devices love them, their reviews say so, he continued. “They use them for every mundane task possible because it’s effortless.”

One customer who has dementia wrote that Alexa had given him his memory back. That he could ask it for the date 20 times a day and it would give him the correct answer 20 times, without getting angry.

But Amazon doesn’t want the world to confine itself to its Echo devices. “The device itself isn’t that smart. All of that lives in the cloud. Alexa is a voice service based on a platform that does all the work,” Vogels said.

Brands and developers could even forego Amazon’s skills kit and use Amazon Polly, its life-like speech service.

“Polly converts text to life-like speech. It can be fully managed, it has 47 voices and speaks 24 languages. Duolingo, the language learning app is based on Polly,” he said.

Polly allows control over the tone, volume, context and different pronunciations, Vogels demonstrated. “It can be used to build voice chatbots, not just Alexa.”

Amazon is investing in developing all this because it believes that the future lies in a human interface to our digital systems.

“I truly believe a voice interface to digital systems will completely revolutionise the way we build these systems and it will open these systems to everyone in the world and not just digital natives,” Vogels concluded.

Source: campaignasia.com; 10 Nov 2017

Artificial intelligence in action: 5 brands brilliantly executing AI

You’ve heard all the forecasts: Robots are going to take away our jobs (possibly even within five years, according to new PricewaterhouseCoopers research) as artificial intelligence turns the world on its head. But of course, AI isn’t really the “next big thing” because it’s already here.

Earlier this year, The Economist surveyed 200 executives and found that 75% of them plan to implement AI in their businesses within the next three years. Google and Microsoft have also both announced shifts from mobile-first to AI-first this year and the skillset of Amazon’s Alexa has tripled over two quarters.

AI will obviously play a huge role in the future, but one thing the technology offers marketers today is a way to offer superior customer experiences. Looking beyond the tech giants, here are five consumer brands utilizing AI in innovative and interesting ways.

1. Sephora

An early adopter of AI, Sephora had a chatbot dispensing beauty advice on Kik a year and a half ago. Choosing cosmetics can be overwhelming—searching “red lipstick” on Sephora.com brings up nearly 200 results—and the chatbot made things easier, starting with a quiz about consumers’ product preferences. The chatbot shared both content and product suggestions, making the sales tactic seem less aggressive. The brand gained some valuable insights, such as the idea that bots aren’t as complicated as they seem and work best with a single objective, and saw enough engagement from that experiment that it’s since launched more chatbots on Messenger.

2. Starbucks

Starbucks is one of many apps integrated into Amazon’s Echo, allowing users to place and pay for their orders with Alexa. The coffee giant also has its own voice assistant, My Starbucks Barista, built into its mobile app.

My Starbucks Barista, which rolled out in beta in January, has all the skills of a human barista, such as taking and modifying orders, and confirming pick-up locations. And since you have to register for Starbucks’ app, its digital assistant will probably even spell your name right.

3. Lloyds Bank

According to March Equifax research, 56% of UK consumers consider biometrics more secure than traditional passwords for online banking. We recognize the irony there, but the fact remains that people want more security around their finances.

Partnering with Microsoft, Lloyds Banking Group customers will be authenticated not by passwords, but by their devices, through Windows Hello, which is designed to recognize faces (not images) and fingerprints. The partnership, the first of its kind in the UK, will begin testing later this year for Lloyds Bank, Halifax and Bank of Scotland customers.

4. Lowe’s

A trip to Lowe’s—the average store is slightly bigger than two football fields, at 116,000 square feet—can be great for your Fitbit score, but difficult if you’re looking to get in and out quickly. Last year, the innovative home improvement retailer introduced the “LoweBot” to select stores in San Francisco. In addition to helping customers find things and answering customer service questions, the rolling kiosk also monitors inventory in real-time as it cruises the aisles, providing Lowe’s with invaluable data about shopping trends.

5. Disney

Disney, a brand that’s already using AI to organize product SKUs, is training artificial neural networks, computing systems modelled after animal brains, to mimic human brains and recognize what makes a story appealing. Using data from Q+A site Quora, Disney researchers used the site’s upvotes and downvotes to train the neural networks to determine what makes some stories more popular than others. At some point in the not-too-distant future, look out for a Mickey Mouse doll that can tell your kids a better bedtime story than you can.

So what does this all mean?

Though AI sounds like a futuristic concept, brands like Sephora and Disney, not to mention Amazon and Google, show that it’s already the new normal. And while it may mean that robots will pour our coffee down the line, they’re already ordering it for us.

AI is crucial for marketers to master simply because it’s become one of many tools to delivering great customer experiences. As the technology becomes more widespread, it will undoubtedly be utilized in even more ways in an even greater variety of fields.

Source: clickz.com; 17 Oct 2017

Amazon teaches Alexa to speak Hinglish. Apple’s Siri is next

Amazon has worked with third-party developers who have built more than 10,000 extensions for Alexa -- from summoning cabs through Ola to recommending Deepika Padukone movies to finding the perfect recipe for Hyderabad biryani.

Amazon has worked with third-party developers who have built more than 10,000 extensions for Alexa — from summoning cabs through Ola to recommending Deepika Padukone movies to finding the perfect recipe for Hyderabad biryani.

The US e-commerce company is beginning to ship Echo speakers in India this week, about a year after bringing them to foreign markets like the UK and Germany. In that time, teams of linguists, speech scientists, developers and engineers have given a decidedly local makeover to the Alexa virtual assistant that powers the speakers.

This Alexa uses a blend of Hindi and English and speaks with an unmistakably Indian accent. She knows Independence Day is August 15th, not July 4th, and wishes listeners “Happy Diwali and a prosperous New Year!” She also refers to the living room as ‘drawing room’ and can add jeera (cumin), haldi (turmeric) and atta (flour) to your shopping list. Then there are her cricket jokes. (Don’t ask.)

“We wanted our devices to talk, walk and feel Indian,” said Parag Gupta, head of product management for Amazon Devices in India. “Alexa is not a visiting American, she has a very Indian personality.”

Amazon isn’t alone. Technology giants from Apple Inc to Google are targeting this nation of 1.3 billion people by training virtual assistants in the heterogeneity of its languages and subcultures. Though many people understand American or British English, they’re more comfortable with assistants who sound more like them.

Hinglish borrows parts of both languages, including the grammar. In some cases words are fused together to mean something different. The key is for the digital assistant to understand a sentence using a mixture of both, yet grasp what they mean and their context.

Source: economictimes.indiatimes.com; 31 Oct 2017

The Next Great Media Channel Is the Self-Driving Car. Will Brands Be Ready?

The average driver spends 48 minutes behind the wheel

GM has increased production of self-driving Chevy Bolts. Volvo is partnering with self-driving car chipmaker Nvidia. Volkswagen is working to power its cars with A.I.

The conversation has fully shifted from “if” driverless cars will become the new normal to “when.” While the general public is eager for improved productivity, better safety and hopes for reduced traffic, marketers should be looking at the autonomous vehicle from a different angle: as the next great media channel.

As technology continues its advance, the car will become a hot spot for interaction, entertainment and information. It will also be a treasure trove of data.

While the exact time frame is hard to predict, the advent of 5G–with 100 times the data transfer speeds of 4G, plus better connectivity between devices and internet-enabled objects—will unlock huge opportunity for both the auto industry and marketers who could exploit the new media experiences.

This opportunity will open up in two ways: first, as a precision marketing tool, using all the data the car will soon produce; secondly, as mass-reaching vehicle (pardon the pun), as self-driving cars become mini entertainment centres.

In the near future, autonomous cars will process staggering amounts of data: current and past destinations, speed of travel, demographics and biometrics of the riders, present and future weather, traffic conditions, and nearby landmarks and commercial locations—all of which marketers could access to achieve an unprecedented level of precision in consumer messaging.

Let’s consider what might soon be possible from a marketing perspective in this new channel for say, a coffee chain.

A passenger in a smart car passes a chain coffee shop on the way to work every morning. They have the coffee brand’s app. When they’re close, we programmatically target the rider, asking if they’d like to stop to pick up a medium soy latte—their preferred order at this time of day. If the rider says yes, their car is directed to the store, where their coffee is ready to be picked up at the counter, since payment has already been processed through the app.

In this example, you can see the confluence of benefits: Time of day meets exact location meets buyer-behaviour meets real-time messaging.

On the other side of our consumer’s day, recognizing the route and time stamp from work to home, a supermarket could serve up cooking content and then share an offer on ingredients. Or if passenger biometric data recognizes that the passenger is generally too hungry to wait, he or she could be served with ads and offers for nearby restaurants. Still on the way home but moving out of the food category, a network, premium channel or streaming service marketer could serve tune-in messages for that evening based on the driver’s historical preferences.

The opportunity doesn’t only lie within in-car targeting. Consider also that a car that drives itself gives users, who used to be drivers, time back in their day (an average of 48 minutes per day according to AAA). More time means more chance to consume ad-funded or branded content, turning the car into another “opportunity to see,” either on mobile or in-car screens.

That means those tune-in messages on the drive home can actually be trailers and behind-the-scenes extras. On the weekends, travel brands could leverage past purchase data to predict preferred vacation times and locations to send targeted destination content ideally timed to when the consumer is in consideration mode, and more receptive to leisure-oriented messages.

Car companies will need to decide what role they wish to play as the producer of this new media “device.” Will they follow the model the video game consoles have already hewn, licensing their tech to various content providers while fighting for valuable exclusive titles? How much control can and should they exert over the “pipes” of their cars?

Regardless of where those chips fall, they will be in the position to collect an amazing amount of data from the cars and those who ride in them. In a category in which the traditional ownership and profitability dynamics are shifting, licensing APIs and selling data will become an increasingly bigger aspect of how car brands make money.

Source: adweek.com; 31 Oct 2017

Google and Facebook commit to ‘gold standard’ to clean up digital advertising

The digital giants have committed themselves to the IAB’s new ‘Gold Standard’ initiative, which looks to “raise the standards” and address ad fraud and brand safety in online advertising.

Google and Facebook have committed themselves to a new initiative by the IAB to address common digital advertising woes such as ad fraud and brand safety.

The ‘Gold Standard’ programme, which launches today (18 October), sees 23 IAB UK board members, including Facebook, Google and Twitter, promise to take three key actions to improve digital advertising:

  1. Reduce ad fraud by implementing the ‘ads.txt’ initiative on all sites carrying ads. This means publishers and distributors are forced to declare who is authorised to sell their inventory, thereby improving transparency for programmatic buyers.
  2. Improve the digital advertising experience for consumers by adhering to the LEAN principles, the Coalition for Better Advertising standards and never using the 12 “bad” ads. In short, ads have to be light, encrypted and non-invasive.
  3. Increase brand safety by working with UK body JICWEBS, which benchmarks best practice for online trading, with a view to become certified or maintain certification.

Initially, the Gold Standard has these three fundamental aims, but could be expanded in future and the IAB will look to encourage its members to tackle other issues such as audience measurement and viewability.

The deadline for implementing the three initiatives will be confirmed in the coming weeks.

Brand safety has been high on advertisers’ list of priorities this year since P&G’s chief brand officer Marc Pritchard issued a rallying cry to the industry to clean up the “murky” media supply system. Meanwhile, YouTube’s brand safety scandal, which saw advertising placed next to extremist or pornographic content, also led advertisers to pull back – with some brands still refusing to advertise on the platform.

“Everyone agrees that digital advertising standards need to improve to keep this industry sustainable and thriving. The IAB Gold Standard is a practical measure that demonstrates media owner commitment to making this happen,” said the IAB’s chief digital officer Tim Elkington.

“Media owners need to send a clear signal to advertisers and agencies that they take their responsibilities seriously to offer the best environment possible so that brands can confidently use digital advertising.”

Source: marketingweek.com; 18 Oct 2017

How to deliver personalised messages at scale

Procter & Gamble says it will seek to strike a balance between personalisation and mass targeting by not compromising on its brands’ purpose.

Procter & Gamble (P&G) is pivoting its digital marketing to deliver more personalised messages on a mass scale. To lead this transformation, it is also looking to champion an increasingly diverse set of marketing skills.

The consumer goods giant, which claims to reach five billion consumers every day, has set its sights on building brands digitally that “meet and exceed consumer expectations”. It looks to do this by using ‘big data’ to determine what people really want, according to Sophie Blum, P&G’s vice-president of marketing for Europe and IMEA (India, the Middle East and Africa), speaking at the Festival of Marketing last week.

“This depth and intimacy of understanding every single consumer is very new. That is what’s transforming the profession. You either get overwhelmed, or you embrace it with tools to be able to interact with and answer [consumers] in a way that is better than your competitors,” she tells Marketing Week.

What follows this focus on big data is mass one-on-one marketing – something the company’s chief brand officer Marc Pritchard briefly referenced in a speech at Dmexco last month.

One example is Pampers. The moment mums-to-be start searching for pregnancy-related information on Google, P&G gets a signal that someone is starting their “journey” and will target them accordingly. During a woman’s third trimester of pregnancy, for example, it might offer advice on what to put into nappy bags, or once the baby is born it will show consumers different nappies to buy as the baby grows.

“At P&G we have this ongoing understanding of one-to-one [messaging]. It’s a day-to-day journey. We are there to accompany consumers by having the right message at the right time,” she says.

When asked how P&G ensures it gets the right balance between personalisation and mass messaging, Blum says staying true to a brand’s purpose is key – and points to feminine hygiene brand Always.

“Always is about female empowerment, no matter what age you are. What will change are consumer expectations. I have different expectations of Always compared to my 14-year-old daughter. The moment I’m in touch with Always, the product [on show] is going to be different. But there are things we don’t compromise on; the brand is the brand,” she says.

P&G has also had a focus on cleaning up the “murky” digital ecosystem after Pritchard’s now seminal speech in January. But when asked if these issues impact the company’s ability to use digital as a brand building tool, Blum instantly refutes this.

“No – it just forces us to be extremely rigorous and disciplined in what we do and how we measure things. We are serving our consumers, it’s not about the channels or tools that are transforming. For us it’s important [to focus] on the way we go about it,” she explains.

The marketing team of the future

Overhauling the company’s culture to become more digitally-focused hasn’t been easy, however. Blum claims one of the biggest challenges has been to create “talent for tomorrow”, where marketing leaders are expected to be able to work across multiple disciplines, understand mathematics and algorithms, while also being able to empathise with people.

“You have a base and then a unique human understanding of what is behind data that is telling the consumer story. You need both the human and tech-savvy side. That’s the new level of recruitment, and a whole new ballgame of leadership,” she says.

As a result, Blum’s plea to young people in the profession is to adopt a diverse set of skills, and to think of brands as a “force of good and growth”.

She concludes: “That’s the role of big brands. The weight on the shoulders of marketers today has never been so heavy; not only to change behaviours and change the conversation, but to be a force for good.”

Source: marketingweek.com; 10 Oct 2017

Netflix Could Become Industry’s Biggest Spender On Content In 2018

Netflix says it may spend as much as $8 billion on content in 2018 — a figure that could make it the biggest content buyer of any media or technology company.

The company slipped the figure into its quarterly letter to shareholders Monday evening, adding that it had $17 billion in content commitments over the next few years, and is expected to spend between $7 billion and $8 billion on content in 2018.

For comparison, the $8 billion figure would be nearly twice what broadcast networks like NBC and CBS spend on content, according to data from SNL Kagan and Boston Consulting Group.

The only other company to spend more on content than Netflix until now has been ESPN, which totalled an estimated $7.3 billion in 2016, largely due to expensive live sports rights.

If ESPN’s spend is similar to what it was in 2016, Netflix could be poised to surpass the Disney-owned cable sports giant. Of course, sports rights tend to rise in price over time, thanks to contracts that were signed years ago, before the cable bundle began to fray. So ESPN’s spot atop the content world may yet be secure.

Netflix’s rapidly growing content spend adds to its competitive challenge for ad-supported media. The more cash it spends on content, the more eyeballs Netflix can steal from other sources of video, including many ad-supported companies.

Source: mediapost.com; 17 Oct 2017

How an oil and gas giant outmaneuvered low oil prices

Italian oil and gas company Eni has transformed under a leader determined to reduce costs without cutting jobs—instead including employees in the turnaround mission.

Transforming a business that must reduce costs doesn’t always have to mean pain for employees—even if that business is a multinational energy company hit hard by dropping oil prices. In this interview, Eni CEO Claudio Descalzi speaks with McKinsey’s Rik Kirkland about navigating the oil and gas company amid drastic drops in oil prices, securing exploration successes, reinvesting capital gains, and driving a comprehensive culture change.

Video of Interview

Transforming an oil and gas giant

I wanted to reduce costs without cutting head count, and I wanted to optimize the structure of the company. Reorganization was very useful, and we got about €800 million per year of cost reduction by just changing the organization and distributing resources in a different way. Those were the first steps.

Then we turned to the refinery. The refinery was exceeding capacity in Italy—which was also the case in Europe overall, but in Italy especially—by about 40, 50 million tons per year. So we shut down the one refinery that caused the big losses for the company, and the same thing was done for the chemical business.

I had to study, because I had to talk to and convince the people that we have to change. Not just culture in terms of costs, but culture in terms of technology, applications, and final output for the chemical and refinery businesses. It was an interesting and intense activity. I had to be involved personally because I had to convince my people—not just give an order or use a consultant—I had to work with them. That was a big three-year effort.

What’s the right amount of risk?

My main objective at the very beginning was to bring the cash neutrality from about $120 per barrel—which is very high, because if you have a cash neutrality at $120 per barrel and the price is $110, you lose $10 per barrel—so the issue was to go from $120 down to about $50 per barrel, where it is now.

I started in 2011, 2012. I called it dual exploration. What I thought to do, is say, “I take a high stake in the asset.” Between 70 percent and 100 percent. I take the risk. I go and select an asset with a low risk, but in a good place, as I told you, close to our facilities. Once I give value to this asset, I can sell at a very high value. Because I have big stake, I can sell at 30 percent, 40 percent, 50 percent.

I remain with the 40 percent; that is a typical stake to operate. And I operate, but I can’t anticipate the cash in. You can imagine when I started this, we start the exploration, then we develop. Before cashing in, you can wait for four, five, or six years, then you can cash in immediately. So you reduce your risk. You de-risk your position in the country. In the last three and a half years, we got €9.1 billion from exploration selling, with a capital gain of €8.1 billion, so a very high capital gain, that allowed us to reinvest. That is something that we started immediately.

Retraining to support a transformation

When you retrain, you have the opportunity to communicate, to explain not just what your employees are going to do—so you give them a drive, direction—but also what is happening in the company. Because we are a big company, and when you talk with the first line or the second line, they know what is happening.

Then you go down, down, down in the scale, and people don’t know. They are scared. They don’t understand. They receive very scary messages from outside, from the press, from the television, from the world. So you have to explain where you are going.

The market for energy in Africa and beyond

We are the biggest exploration and production company in terms of equity production and research; we are in 15 countries. In Africa there is a lot to do in terms of access to energy, so we need to develop the African energy market. Consumption, it has to grow. But it is still at the very beginning, considering that it represents 15 percent of the worldwide population, which uses 3 percent, 4 percent of the worldwide energy. Europe is 7 percent, and consumption is at 12 percent, 13 percent. And Africa needs energy. Normally the model was different, so we’d find gas and oil and do exports. Africa has a lot of energy, but it doesn’t have access to energy. More than 650 million people don’t have access to electricity, so you cannot think that they can develop themselves. That is a wonderful market.

I don’t think that oil and gas is going to disappear because it’s not sustainable, as some argue. We cannot do differently, because when we talk about renewables and electrical cars, we talk about ourselves—we think about Europe, we think about the US, and we represent the US, Europe, Japan, New Zealand, and Australia, or 14 percent of the world population. Eighty-six percent are in a different kind of situation. They don’t have gasoline. They don’t have electricity. They don’t have power.

So they need oil and gas. They need renewables, clearly. They need a different energy mix.

The secret to staying balanced and resilient

First of all, it’s family. You must have a strong family. A strong family, wife, children, a situation where you can be comfortable and you know that you have them with you, and that is quite important.

And then passion. When there is passion, there is adrenaline, and you love what you are doing, you are never tired. When you love your people, you think that you have to talk to them because you have to convince them, they have to understand that you are with them, you are not tired.

I grew up in this company, so all my family’s here, because I have all my people; we grew up together, and we are still together. I started my 37th year in the company.

I’m really lucky, honestly. And I thank God that I have this lucky life.

Source: mckinsey.com; Oct 2017

Sceptical Malaysians don’t believe what they see on social media

Despite high levels of connectivity, brands face a struggle to connect with Malaysians via online channels, according to Kantar TNS’s latest “Connected Life” research.

The findings show that while Malaysians spend 7.2 hours online every day, the opportunity for brands to engage with them there is under threat, as consumers are mistrusting of online content and are sceptical of brand motivations.

The research revealed that sceptical Malaysians do not trust the content they are consuming online, as just 17% of connected consumers consider social media content to be reliable. This contrasts markedly with other Southeast Asian countries such as the Philippines and Indonesia, where 59% and 61% respectively trust social media content. Almost one in three (31%) also have concerns about how much control the social media networks have over the content that they see on their feeds.

“Malaysians spend a large proportion of their day online. We’re constantly connected to the internet thanks to our mobile devices and ever-improving data costs and speeds,” MC Lai, managing director of Malaysia at Kantar TNS, said.

More importantly, marketers need to realise that Malaysians are not easy targets in this digital world. In comparison to other less developed countries in the region, Lai said:

Malaysian consumers are more mistrusting of what they see online, and are more uncomfortable with brands collecting their personal data.
Therefore, he added, brands need to step up the game and demonstrate the value they can bring to Malaysian consumers’ lives if they want to earn their trust and ensure that they are able to use these channels for meaningful brand conversations.

Trust in brands

The study also showed that trust in brands varies significantly between markets. In Malaysia, consumers are moderately cynical, with only 41% of the connected consumer population trusting global brands. This trust level falls significantly in other markets such as Australia (19%), however in emerging markets such as Vietnam, 54% of consumers remain trusting of these brands.

Circling back to personal data issues, the findings show that despite the benefits that can be delivered through sharing data, Malaysians are cautious of how much of their personal data they share online. About 38% of consumers in Malaysia object to connected devices monitoring their activities even if it makes their lives easier, compared to 15% in Indonesia. Over half (51%) of Malaysians have concerns about the amount of personal data that brands have on them, compared to 33% across the region. Malaysians are also found to become increasingly aware of the price they are paying for their connected lifestyles, and many feel on the losing end of an unfair exchange.

Trust is fragile, Michael Nicholas, global lead of connected solutions at Kantar TNS, said. Nicholas added, while brands in for emerging countries see higher levels of consumer trust today than those in developed ones, they should not take it for granted.

“To build and protect trust, brands need to put the customer first. That means understanding their motivations, understanding the right moments to engage with them, respecting their time as valuable, and being more transparent about how and when they collect and use their personal data. Above all, that means putting the customer first – something that many marketers have forgotten to do,” he added.

Source: adweek.com; 17 Oct 2017