TV Viewers Are Demanding More Options, and Streaming Services Are Happy to Oblige

Same channels, different remote control

The good news: TV lovers still love watching TV. The not as good news: Viewers aren’t watching it in the same way as they used to (and until relatively recently).

Set-top cable boxes have dwindled in popularity over the past four years. As consumers turn to connected TVs and devices, they have less need for a monthly box-rental fee and thousands of channels they don’t watch.

According to a study from Hub Entertainment Research, viewers reported that for the first time since tracking began in 2014, watching TV online was more popular than watching on a set-top box.

About 52 percent of viewers now say they watch their favorite shows online via services like Netflix, Hulu or Amazon, on a network’s own site or app, or via other online services like iTunes. Forty-eight percent of viewers prefer to watch TV live, on DVR or through an on-demand platform.

The emergence of streaming TV

TV started with limited broadcast networks and appointment viewing. If you missed an episode, that was it. Today, consumers can choose what channels they pay for, on what devices they watch those channels, which episodes to watch and when to tune in. Viewers are in control of the remote, and TV networks and providers are trying to be as flexible as their consumers need them to be.

Today, viewers hold all the power. They’re demanding high-quality content on their preferred devices at the time of their choice, and the companies that helped create the disruption and challenge to the status quo have been happy to oblige.

Sling TV is one such example. The skinny-cable bundle launched in 2015 when there was no live TV streaming service letting users control which channels they watch and pay for.

“We saw an opportunity to reach both cord cutters and cord-nevers,” said Jimshade Chaudhari, vp of marketing and management at Sling TV. “Lots of those people were frustrated with traditional TV back then and still are today.”

Sling TV currently provides two subscription plans with many add-on packages, giving users a customizable experience based on the TV channels they actually want to watch.

“The concept from a consumer standpoint caught on right away,” Chaudhari said. “[Viewers had] been waiting a long time for something like this. And as they got familiar with what it was, they got more control and flexibility than they ever got from the traditional cable experience.”

Subscribers to contract-free services like Sling, Playstation Vue, YouTube TV and other similar platforms can cancel any time at no fee, something not all cable companies allow in their contracts. Additionally, many of these platforms are available on multiple smart TV-connected devices like Roku, Apple TV or Amazon Fire TV where viewers can install other apps for entertainment like games or podcasts.

Even though the mechanics of viewership have started to shift, one thing has remained the same—people still love TV.

“It’s an escape for them,” Chaudhari said. “They want entertainment and really easy access to it that they don’t have to think about. Netflix helped drive the watch-on-your-own-time sensibility early on, and now consumers want more flexibility.”

Libraries and live options

Hulu, another pioneer in the entertainment streaming world, has seen the shift on a larger scale. As it celebrates its 10th anniversary, the platform has added more movies, shows, original programs, premium network add-ons and now live TV.

“Our lives as viewers have been changed irreversibly,” said Ben Smith, Hulu’s svp and head of experience. “Hulu was radical when it launched, but we’ve been all about putting the user in control of the time and place they watch content they love since the beginning.”

When Hulu considers what to develop or provide, it always considers the viewer first and tries to find a way to make that experience friendly to both users and advertisers, according to Smith.

Personalization and questioning what TV will be is at the top of Hulu’s agenda as it looks forward to the next decade.

“We don’t sell ads into shows, but we sell audiences to advertisers,” Smith said. “If Ford wants to reach a male audience aged 25 to 35 in the Midwest, we can do that. And if you don’t fall into that category, then you won’t see that ad.”

In addition to contextually appropriate ads tailored to the audience, Hulu is also mindful of ad repetition (“Zero people want to see the same ad five times in one hour,” Smith said) and providing viewers with the option not to see ads. Hulu offers commercial-free streaming options subscribers can add onto the company’s live-TV plan or its streaming library plan.

“Consumers are expecting experiences that are tailored to their needs,” Smith said. “Hulu, Spotify, Amazon—all these companies are working to empower the consumer.”

Source: adweek.com; 20 Nov 2017

A checklist for hiring celebrities in China

Zero tolerance: Five things China’s government and/or public won’t accept in celebrity endorsers.

In recent years, foreign luxury brands in China have heavily relied on celebrities to enhance brand recognition and gain customer loyalty. Though this strategy can bring about repercussions when brands work with someone who does not fit their image, partnering with celebrities can at least bring a substantial amount of traffic and attention on social media. Marketers can then leverage this attention to promote products and tell brand stories.

Making celebrities the public face of brands, nonetheless, has become an increasingly difficult task nowadays, which requires marketers to understand the political, cultural and social reality of China and vet potential brand ambassadors.

In recent months, the Chinese government has rolled out a series of measures to regulate celebrity and entertainment circles. The most recent prominent example of this is Katy Perry, who was scheduled to perform at the Shanghai Victoria Secret Fashion Show this year. However, her visa was denied because of her 2015 performance in Taipei, where she donned a dress with sunflowers on it and waved a Taiwanese flag. The sunflower was the symbol of the 2014 Sunflower Student Movement, which protested a bill that aimed to liberalize trade between China and Taiwan. However, many protesters feared further economic integration with China would encroach on Taiwan’s political independence.

The above example speaks to the necessity for luxury brands to fully understand the lifestyles, personal behaviours and relationships, as well as political attitudes of the celebrities who they want to hire. Celebrities’ massive online popularity will make their career-ending scandals go viral much more easily than others, which could bring irreversible damage to the brands that they represent.

Though there are no perfect precautionary measures that can be taken to totally avoid celebrity scandals from occurring, there are many lessons that luxury brands can learn about what the Chinese government and the public dislike based on some previous cases. The following are several issues that the Chinese government and online citizens show zero tolerance for:

1. Drugs

Drugs are totally forbidden in China. This includes marijuana, which has been legalized in many nations around the world. In 2015, the Chinese government passed a regulation that stipulates that celebrities who are involved in drug-related scandals cannot appear in TV shows, advertisements, films, etc. and brands that work with them have to drop their contracts.

The Taiwanese actor Kai Ko, who used to be the brand ambassador of the French premium cosmetics brand L’Oreal, is a prominent example of a brand ambassador running into trouble for drug use. Ko gained fame for his role in the film “You Are the Apple of My Eye.” In 2014, he was detained by Beijing police for drug use and L’Oreal issued a public statement to apologize to the public for working with Ko.

2. Political stance

It is equally important to check the political stance of celebrities before hiring them. In China, the public cannot promote Taiwanese and Tibetan independence. It is also unacceptable to criticize the country’s political system and leaders or publicly show affinity for Japan.

Lancome’s previous brand ambassador, Denise Ho from Hong Kong, was removed from her position after voicing her support for the “Occupy Central” movement, which sparked backlash on China’s social media sites last year.

3. Extramarital affairs

The Chinese online community also has zero tolerance for celebrities’ extramarital affairs. Extramarital scandals cause substantially more uproar on the Chinese internet and the unfaithful party is often harshly criticized for his or her unethical behaviour. In recent years, the Chinese populace has at times voluntarily boycotted celebrities who are involved in this type of scandal.

Montblanc‘s previous Chinese brand ambassador Lin Dan, a professional badminton player who has won two Olympic gold medals, is a prime example. He was replaced by other celebrities immediately after his extramarital affairs were exposed to the public in 2016.

4. Charity fraud

For Chinese celebrities, it is a highly valuable practice for them to participate in philanthropic activities. The government and the public like to see them give their time or money for a cause.

The Hollywood star Zhang Ziyi, who was also the brand ambassador of Giorgio Armani, came under fire for charity fraud. Zhang reportedly lied about donating money to aid people who suffered in the Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008. Zhang quickly received harsh rebuke from both the Chinese government and the public. The state-owned People’s Daily wrote an open letter to Zhang, that said that her behaviours “challenged human being’s moral limitation.” The brand immediately dropped Zhang.

5. Unethical business practices

Nowadays, many Chinese celebrities have their own businesses along with their careers as actors or singers. Therefore, luxury brands have to ensure that they are aware of the kind of businesses that their celebrity partners have been running. For example, Emporio Armani’s Chinese brand ambassador Hu Ge owns a Japanese restaurant in Shanghai. Dior’s brand ambassador Angelababy is also the founder of two venture capital firms.

Last week, the brand ambassador of the high-end watch brand Jaeger-LeCoultre, Zhao Wei, was involved in a financial fraud case. Chinese authorities discovered her and her husband’s unethical activities in the country’s capital markets.

Source: Jing Daily/campaignasia.com; 20 Nov 2017

Shell, bio-bean and Coffee-Drinkers Collaborate to Help Power London’s Buses

Shell and bio-bean announce that together they are helping to power some of London’s buses using a biofuel made partly from waste coffee grounds.

The B20 biofuel contains a 20% bio-component which contains part coffee oil. The biofuel is being added to the London bus fuel supply chain and will help to power some of the buses; without need for modification.

Biofuel provides a cleaner, more sustainable energy solution for buses across London’s network by decreasing emissions.

“Our Coffee Logs have already become the fuel of choice for households looking for a high-performance, sustainable way to heat their homes – and now, with the support of Shell, bio-bean and Argent Energy have created thousands of litres of coffee-derived B20 biodiesel which will help power London buses for the first time,” said bio-bean’s founder Arthur Kay. “It’s a great example of what can be done when we start to reimagine waste as an untapped resource.”

The average Londoner drinks 2.3 cups of coffee a day which produces over 200,000 tonnes of waste a year, much of which would otherwise end in landfill with the potential to emit 126 million kg of CO2. bio-bean works to collect some of these waste coffee grounds from high street chains and factories.

The grounds are dried and processed before coffee oil is extracted. bio-bean works with its fuel partner Argent Energy to process this oil into a blended B20 biofuel. 6,000 litres of coffee oil has been produced, which if used as a pure-blend for the bio component and mixed with mineral diesel to form a B20, could help power the equivalent of one London bus for a year.

This latest collaboration is part of Shell’s #makethefuture energy relay, which supports entrepreneurs turning bright energy innovations into a positive impact for communities around the world.

Sinead Lynch, Shell UK Country Chair, said: “When it comes to clean energy, we are always looking for the next inventive solution. A good idea can come from anywhere, but with the scale and commitment of Shell, we can help enable true progress. We’re pleased to be able to support bio-bean to trial this innovative new energy solution which can help to power buses, keeping Londoners moving around the city – powered in part by their waste coffee grounds.”

bio-bean founder Arthur Kay won Shell LiveWIRE’s Innovation Award in 2013 and the Mayor’s Entrepreneur Programme in 2012 with his ideas about turning coffee waste into fuel. bio-bean has since gone on to produce bio-mass pellets and briquettes called Coffee Logs, before this latest biofuel innovation.

Source: marcommnews.com; 20 Nov 2017

Cyborg-ism and what it means for media

Moon Ribas has an implant in her foot that responds to seismic activity. Why should media professionals care about that?

Moon Ribas is a self-described “elective cyborg”. The Spanish artist has a device implanted in her foot that vibrates in tandem with a worldwide network of seismographs. This tremor sense is just one of a series of experiments Ribas has done to augment her senses with technology—choices that she says have made her more human, rather than less.

In this video, Campaign speaks with Ribas about her experience, and how certain people react to it. We also hear from Chris Stephenson, PHD’s regional head of strategy, who argues that creatives and media professionals can’t afford to ignore the small but growing trend toward cyborg-isation.

Source: campaignasia.com; 21 Nov 2017

Facebook says ‘sky is the limit’ for Messenger as it brings customer service tools to brand websites

Facebook is hoping to make it easier for brands to use Messenger for customer service as it looks to provide a more efficient alternative to call centres.

Facebook is making a major push on its Messenger service as it looks to provide marketers with a “more efficient” customer service alternative to call centres.

Facebook is introducing a money transfer tool for the UK market and a new chat plugin, which will allow brands to embed a customer service chatbot directly onto their website. The new services are part of the rollout of Facebook Messenger 2.2 and also include the ability for brands to start sending people sponsored messages.

There will be additional metrics for tracking Messenger performance, while Facebook is opening up its business development tools to new languages including French, Portuguese and German.

Speaking at Web Summit in Lisbon today (7 November), Facebook’s head of Messenger products Stan Chudnovsky said the “sky was the limit” in terms of the chat platform’s transition into a customer service tool. He believes consumers have grown tired of the traditional ways of dealing with a complaint or product query and are looking for a better way to talk to brands.

Chudnovsky explained: “At the moment, you have to call someone up then press ‘one’, then press ‘three’, then press ‘four’ while being put on and off hold. It’s a pain for millions of people.

“The phone model isn’t efficient enough anymore and it’s a lot more efficient for them to be on Facebook Messenger. The sky really is the limit in terms of how big this can become.”

Brands including Argos, Aviva and Air France are already signed up to Messenger and offer a customer service chatbot. But Chudnovsky said one of the key challenges is to make it clear when users are actually talking to humans.

“We have to be transparent and make sure people know whether it’s a bot or a human answering them. The separation has to be very clear,” he added.

Where Messenger can shine is in providing context, he claimed. Rather than having to log onto multiple websites or check emails, Chudnovsky said Messenger can provide a “permanent context” so users are always in the same session and can easily look at records of communication.

He also answered a question on whether Facebook tailors advertising by listening into people’s conversations through the microphones on their devices amid accusations it is doing just that. Chudnovsky dismissed them, concluding: “The human brain is biased to jump to the simplest explanation.

“The reality is people are using Messenger so much nowadays that the possibility of something they talk about then appearing as advertising in their browser is a lot higher. We’re not using anybody’s microphone or listening into conversations to target advertising, I can promise you.”

Source: marketingweek.com; 7 Nov 2017

Consumers willing to share location data with apps despite privacy concerns

Consumer willingness to share their mobile device’s location data with apps has grown in the last two years, although many still harbour significant concerns

The figures come from new research by mobile marketing platform Verve that asked 2,000 UK adults how comfortable they were letting independent apps know their whereabouts.

55% of respondents said that they were more comfortable sharing the information now than they were two years ago, with 73% allowing select apps to access the information. However, only 11% claimed to always every app they use to access their location info.

“Consumers are becoming more accustomed to the idea of sharing their device’s location with apps, in exchange for useful or personalised services,” Ian James, General Manager of International at Verve, said.

“This information is extremely valuable and creates huge opportunities for publishers, but also advertisers who want to engage customers with memorable and personalised experiences.

Trust and permission

Consumers are more willing to let certain kinds of apps gain access to their location data, 40% say they share their phone’s location with weather apps; and a third (33%) with transport apps. Many other verticals are fast leveraging the powers of location.

77% consider how well the brand is known to be a good indicator of how trustworthy they are likely to be with data, although the surveyed consumers had a range of other important considerations. 60% look for guarantees that the information is securely stored, while 59% like to have the ability to dictate how the data is used or have the ability to turn it off.

Another key concern is whether the information is anonymised, which 55% listed as being very important to them.

“To retain consumer trust and permission, publishers must be transparent about how that data is used, and brands must ensure resulting ads are both well-targeted and relevant,” continued James.

“Too often today, location data used by advertisers is not of a high enough quality to support this – the industry has to step up its game to truly unlock the power and value of location marketing.”

Consumers certainly expect benefits for sharing their information with apps, with 38% wanting special offers or coupons and 20% wanting on the spot offers.

64% say that concerns about their privacy make them less likely to share their information location with apps.

Source: marketingtechnews.net; 14 Nov 2017

Chatbots and the rise of conversational marketing

In an ideal world, every brand would be able to dedicate enough resources to give each customer the time and attention they need. Nothing can be as annoying for a customer as a bad or lacklustre customer service experience, where they feel that they were not being given the attention they deserved.

If a brand gives too many of their customers this kind of experience, they may find that they don’t have as many customers after a while.

In a survey of Fortune 500 marketing professionals carried out by LiveWorld, 52% of respondents thought that advances in technology would allow them to engage in meaningful two-way conversations with their customers. Social media, messaging apps and, in particular, chatbots are seen as effective tools to usher in ‘conversational marketing’.

“Conversational marketing is disrupting the brand playbook as consumers spend more time in messaging apps,” said Peter Friedman, Chairman and CEO, LiveWorld.

“Marketers must employ two-way dialogue tactics to boost consumer engagement, be in the moment, and foster lasting customer relationships.”

Conversational marketing is the shift away from brands trying to dictate to customers how to think and feel about products and services. Instead, through the use of chatbots, auto-responders and tech that integrates live agents, brands can actually converse with their customers in real-time, leading to personalised experiences and lots of lovely data on consumer intentions and behaviours.

Conversing with customers

55% of the LiveWorld respondents wanted to deploy messaging apps for the purpose of delivering better customer service. However, currently less than a third are using the technology to try have a positive impact on customer experience. 43% have deployed messaging apps in order to further marketing campaign goals.

Chatbots are the tool that most marketers anticipate allowing them to talk more with their customers. 40% anticipated that their company would begin to use more chatbots in the coming year.

“Chatbots are altering the future of brand marketing campaigns with conversations between brands and the always-on consumer,” says Friedman.

“Early adoption of messaging platforms enables natural and authentic engagement with customers and provides brand marketers with a competitive advantage.”

Source: marketingtechnews.net; 14 Nov 2017

Hear What Voice Means for Brands

If a picture paints 1,000 words, how long will it take for Alexa to reel off my flight search results? Is that better than seeing them on my screen? To understand what a technology means for society, business and brands, it’s vital that we understand its limitations as well as its profound new possibilities. Voice is a naturally fast and sometimes magical way to input information, but as it currently stands it’s not always the best means to getting valuable outcomes.

Of course, that hasn’t stopped us from embracing voice. While many now avoid talking on the phone like it’s the plague in favour of exclusively texting, we are at the same time excitedly talking into smart machines at every chance we get. Regardless of the logic, voice now seems to be a natural and desirable way for consumers to navigate information, so we must ask: What does it mean for brands?

I think we need to take both a short- and long-term look at voice technologies. Amara’s Law declares that the short-term effects of technology are often overstated, while its long-term impact is often underestimated. It is in this important long-term context that I believe the world of voice has a lot of promise.

Short-term Disillusionment

The current obsession with voice changing everything is a little naive. It shows a degree of familiarity with technology, but only a passing understanding of humanity.

Quite honestly, I just don’t buy the predictions. Gartner thinks that by 2020, 30% of searches will be done without a screen (Gartner, October 2016). Activate predicts that the connected speaker will be the fastest adopted product ever, reaching 50% of U.S. households in the next three years (Activate, October 2017). Well, I’ve used and loved multiple voice-activated devices for two years, and I still just don’t buy it.

As Executive Vice President and Head of Innovation at Zenith USA innovation is literally in my job title, but watching me use voice is a bit like watching my parents use a mouse for the first time — you can see a degree of wonder, but also that I’m using all sorts of brain muscles differently, and for the first time. The reality is that, for most people trained in the old way, voice is hard and the payoff not great.

Most articles about voice commerce seem to be written by those who have never used it. Buying things from a device is not easy. It’s not a faster way to get a pizza or a better way to procure shampoo; it’s a long and uncertain journey filled with concerns and friction. If all we ever knew was voice technology, the invention of the website would be our saviour. There are great use cases — the weather, alarm clocks, the news, music (if you are not picky or can actually remember songs names) and a few more, but most of the time, commerce simply isn’t it.

In the next three years or so, I just don’t see life changing much thanks to voice technologies, despite the fact that millions of households may have bought them. Some people will of course continue to shout out demands for Alexa to order laundry detergent off Amazon, and others will dabble with ordering an Uber while they get dressed — just to see what it’s like. Perhaps a tiny percentage of households, for a tiny percentage of their purchases, will order this way, but to say that it’s the entire future of commerce or branding shows a lack of understanding.

Long-term Potential

If we take whole swathes of industries today, from hailing taxis to paying energy bills, ordering food to buying clothes, finding flights to booking hotels, the reality is that seeing is better than hearing. Voice is great for micro transactions and a magical way to check your credit card bill, find out the remaining data on your monthly phone plan, or pay off bills quickly, but in its current state, it simply isn’t the future of retail.

Combined with other emerging technologies, however, I see where the long-term potential of voice will come into play. A bigger disrupter to the overall retail industry is subscription shopping, the ultimate frictionless experience: The idea that you won’t ever need to engage anyone or anything because you merely have items arriving automatically each month or week. The magical piece to this — awareness — is where voice can truly come into play.

This is ultimately the same quandary faced by all brands: First, making sure the product is top of mind and that awareness is high; second, that the brand is liked and understood, and finally, that the products are good enough to be sure people want to use them time and time again.

As emerging technologies like Artificial Intelligence begin to reach their true potential, it will power a whole new world of voice. In the long-term, these technologies will become a new operating system, a new gateway and glue to all of the devices that we own. We will see screens operate around us, with TV ads that ask us to speak to our Alexa, and then allow us to ask for maps to stores and locations to update magically in our cars.

In the future, the next generation will have grown ups using voice as the primary way to interact with devices, and therefore people will build business models and products based on this construct. General AI will make voice devices feel human and rich and, above all else, smart. We will trust our devices, and therefore automation will remove many of our brand choices. But even in this crazy new world, we still need to know that a W Hotel is trendy, that a Cadillac is a great car, that Domino’s makes great pizza. The importance of branding won’t change. The importance of advertising and marketing remain. Like with all new ad technologies, we will just need to find that added layer of humanity to reach through these new devices to the consumer.

Tom Goodwin is the Executive Vice President and Head of Innovation at Zenith in the U.S. His role is to understand new technology, behaviours and platforms, and ideate and implement solutions for clients that take advantage of the new opportunities these make possible.

Source: mediavillage.com; 13 Nov 2017

Has smartphone usage fallen among young people?

According to new research by Kantar TNS, smartphone usage has fallen among 16 – 24-year olds for the first time.

The report states that mobile device owners in that age group spend an average of 2.8 hours using their phones daily. This is down from 3.9 hours last year. While this doesn’t sound like a lot, it is significant for a number of reasons.

Firstly, if accurate, it seems to fly contrary to the conventional wisdom that people (especially young people) are spending more time on their devices. Secondly, if the dip is indicative of the beginnings of a perception among young people that they are spending too much time on their devices, this could have wide-ranging effects across the marketing and advertising industry.

“Thanks to the growing number of social media channels and a consumer demand for everything on-the-go, I don’t see this decline as reflective of a nation looking to move away from mobile phones,” Josh Krichefski, CEO of MediaCom UK, said.

“Smartphone penetration is now at 85% of all adults, and video – which companies like Facebook and Twitter have invested in massively of late – is now most viewed on a mobile; video consumption has more than trebled in the last five years and it’s only going to keep increasing.”

“Too late to put the genie back in the bottle”

34% of the young people interviewed as part of the study reported feeling that they spend too much time on their phones and said that they want to cut down on their usage time.

There is, however, a disconnect between intention and action, as the 16 – 24-year-old age group still spend significantly more time on their phones than any other. The 3.8 hour daily average is way above the 2.4 hour average across other generations.

“According to our own research, there’s been a significant rise in teenagers, in particular, viewing TV on smartphones. This is most likely due to phones getting bigger and content optimised to fit them, allowing teens to tap into their favourite shows and entertainment channels on-the-go and when it suits them,” continued Krichefski.

“Young people now have greater autonomy over how and when they watch TV, and so one reason for the decline in smartphone usage could be the popularity of ‘multiscreen’ services, allowing the viewer to pick up exactly where they left off when watching content between devices – Sky Q is a good example of this. The smartphone, though, isn’t going away anytime soon.”

One of the authors of the report, Michael Nicholas, agrees that the findings most likely don’t signal the end of mass smartphone usage.

“It’s too late to put the genie back in the bottle — phones are too entwined in our everyday lives, so we’re not likely to see many young people taking the radical decision to ditch them,” he said.

“However, there’s clearly a conflict between our perceptions on phone usage and acting on it.”

Source: marketingtechnews.net; 31 Oct 2017

Google updates local search results by user location

Google has updated the trigger with which it determines the location of the user.

Local search results will no longer be determined by the country-specific browser being used by a user. A new update by Google has done away with domain dependency and transitions towards picking the user location as the main factor for serving local search results.

This means that logging into Google.com.my from Singapore will lead to search results pertaining to Singapore.

Google will no longer rely on top-level domains, such as Google.com.sg, as a trigger for determining the location of the user. Country services on the mobile web, the Google app for iOS, desktop search, and Google Maps will now correspond to the location of the user’s device.

The change only impacts users so advertisers needn’t worry about any changes to PPC and SEM campaigns in progress.

According to a blog post, 20% of searches on Google are related to the location according to Evelyn Kao, the product manager at Google. “So providing locally relevant search results is an essential part of serving you the most accurate information,” she adds.

Similar to settings for Google products such as Google Earth, Gmail, and YouTube, users can change the location manually if they choose to.

“While this update will change the way Google Search and Maps services are labelled, it won’t affect the way these products work, nor will it change how we handle obligations under national law,” Kao writes.

The update is meant to rely on a user opting to keep their location tracker on in order to find the most relevant search results, which ties into Google’s dependency on mobile search as evidenced at the quarter three earnings call.

Source: campaignasia.com; 31 Oct 2017